Tackling tax abuse

Though OECD work on making international tax fairer began over 50 years ago, it was not until 1998 and a report on harmful tax competition that the OECD stepped up its work against tax evasion, tax havens and abuse.

Since then it has been committed to counter harmful tax practices and improve compliance, encourage exchange of information, combat aggressive tax planning and corruption, and improve co-operation between tax and anti-money laundering authorities.

The 1998 report defined a tax haven as a country or territory where there is no or nominal tax on the relevant income, combined with a lack of effective exchange of information, a lack of transparency, and no substantial economic activities. The OECD has also developed standards of transparency and exchange of information that have been endorsed by governments and international organisations throughout the world and which serve as a model for most of the 3,000 bilateral tax conventions in existence today.

The standards require several things, such as exchange of information on request where it is "foreseeably relevant" to the administration and enforcement of the domestic laws of the treaty partner, and respect for taxpayers' rights. Strict confidentiality of all information exchanged is also required. Progress on improving transparency, informationsharing and compliance with tax laws accelerated in the lead-up and aftermath of the G20 summit in April 2009, which set the fight against tax havens as a priority.

All 30 OECD countries now meet the standard. Of the 40-plus tax havens that the OECD identified in 2000, nine-the Netherlands Antilles, Aruba, Bermuda, the British Virgin Islands, Cyprus, the Isle of Man, Guernsey, Jersey and Malta-are actively implementing the OECD standard either by means of Tax Information Exchange Agreements (TIEAs) or tax treaties, and the international community needs to recognise this progress. Macao and Singapore, as well as Hong Kong, China, have endorsed the standards and will take steps before the end of 2009 to start implementing them. Andorra, Liechtenstein and Monaco have also agreed to implement the standards. The Global Forum on Taxation, which is now the pre-eminent platform for international dialogue on this issue, will monitor commitments and push for compliance in more jurisdictions, as well as work to prevent the creation of new tax havens.

References

OECD (1998), Harmful Tax Competition: An Emerging Global Issue, Paris For more details, see also www.oecd.org/tax/evasion

Visit www.oecd.org/tax

Visit www.oecd.org/finance

©OECD Observer No 273 June 2009



Bookmark this


Economic data

GDP : +0.5%, Q4 2014
Employment rate: 65.9%, Q4 2014
Annual inflation : 0.57% Feb 2015
Trade : -3.0% exp, -3.7 imp, Q4 2014
Unemployment : 7.022% Feb 2015
More moderate expansion ahead? Composite leading indicators
Updated: 23 Apr 2015

E-Newsletter

Stay up-to-date with the latest news from the OECD by signing up for our e-newsletter :

Twitter feed

Suscribe now

<b>Subscribe now!</b>

To receive your exclusive print editions delivered to you directly


Online edition
Previous editions

Don't miss

  • Today, after three years of drought, California is in the midst of a full-blown political and environmental crisis, with restrictions imposed across the state, reports the Financial Times.
  • Why is the gap between rich and poor growing despite rises in GDP? Do benefits help? Does aid work? (The Guardian)
  • Lack of water holding back Asian growth In Asia, the world’s most dynamic region with the fastest economic growth, 75% of countries face serious water shortages.
  • ADB water
  • Greek finance minister Yanis Varoufakis expressed its scepticism towards the Eurozone’s institutions and gave ideas for ways forward. "Greece must become reformable again", Yanis Varoufakis said.
  • Business brief: Israel's water
  • #OECD360: Your country in figures.
  • How to ensure transparency in public procurement? Read Cobus de Swardt's article on OECD Insights.
  • Asia to maintain a strong 6.3% growth rate in 2015 and 2016, according to the Asian Development Bank
  • After three decades of extraordinary economic development, China is shifting to a slower and more sustainable growth path, according to the OECD's latest Economic Survey of China.
  • In pursuit of the American Dream
  • Iceland's strong recovery stems from the good use of its natural resources, the energy sector and tourism according to Peter Dohlman, IMF Mission Chief for Iceland.
  • cyclone
  • Government representatives and experts from around the world are gathering in Japan this week to develop a post-2015 framework for global disaster risk reduction. The World Bank and the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) will share expertise at the conference.
  • Switzerland’s recent moves towards greater tax transparency were welcomed by the Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes, based at the OECD, as a boost to international efforts to end tax evasion. Work will continue with Switzerland, notably on implementation, in 2015.
  • Help bridge the gap between business integrity policies & practices:participate in this new OECD survey by clicking on the image.
  • What can we do to promote better literacy skills for all? Read Andreas Schleicher's latest blog on oecdeducationtoday.
  • pisa
  • Secretary General Angel Gurría describes the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) as a useful tool to enhance educational systems but states that improving a country's ranking should not be a goal per se. Article in Spanish by El País.
  • [VIDEO] Although many countries have made great progress in narrowing gender gaps in education, new challenges are looming.
  • 5 things you might not know about the state of Amazonas. The World Bank identifies the main colossal challenges Brazil's biggest state is facing.
  • Gender mainstreaming: young French lady working in an engine assembly plant. Women and men in the same boat when it comes to job insecurity. © Raphaël Helle / Signatures / La France VUE D'ICI
  • The Asian Development Bank together with the International Labour Organization challenge the concept of women's work in Asia and the Pacific.
  • Visit the OECD Gender Data Portal. Selected indicators shedding light on gender inequalities in education, employment and entrepreneurship.
  • The 5th Anti-corruption conference for G20 governments and business in Istanbul on 6 March will address how all businesses can play their part in contributing to growth and investment, and can operate with clean hands in a safe environment.
  • Success story. Discover the story of this young Ethiopian woman who launched a successful business in the footwear industry and became a UN Goodwill Ambassador for Entrepreneurship.
  • Transports in Asia. The Asian Development Bank advocates sustainable transport in a continent where vehicle ownership is perceived as a sign of social success.
  • Vote for your favourite photograph! This World Bank #EachDayISee photo contest aims to display visual stories from all over the world through which people express what they would like to see changed and improved.
  • Why is investment so low in the euro area? This short IMF blog post gives you an insight into the causes of the euro-zone's drastic decline in investment.
  • Have your say! The UN wants to know what matters most to you: pick six global issues in the list and send it to the United Nations.
  • Tim Harcourt Video
  • G20 and Australia: Bestselling economist Tim Harcourt speaks to the BBC about how Australia has gone from "Down Under to Down Wonder".
  • Clear air and healthy lungs: how to better tackle air pollution. From New Delhi to Accra, millions of people breathe polluted air. A new report examines the World Bank’s experience working to improve air quality.

Most Popular Articles

Poll

What issue are you most concerned about in 2015?

Euro crisis
Unemployment
Global warming
International conflict
Other

OECD Insights Blog

NOTE: All signed articles in the OECD Observer express the opinions of the authors
and do not necessarily represent the official views of OECD member countries.

All rights reserved. OECD 2015